The main principles outlined in this document can be applied to gasket materials. The actual test procedures can be more detailed due to the geometric structure of the gasket materials. Factors to consider include the following. Process-unit maintenance procedures are also important. Process units in which rigorous procedures for material verification are used would be expected to have a lower likelihood of non- conformances.
In some cases, alloys are used in piping systems for reasons other than corrosion resistance or structural integrity.
In these cases, the structural integrity of the system would not be harmed by material non-conformances. A material verification program may not be necessary in these systems. An example would be stainless steel lube oil systems in which stainless steel is used for maintaining oil purity. This can provide a basis for prioritizing specific equipment in a given system or process unit.
The concepts noted previously in 4. The material verification program that is adopted should provide for proper documentation and methods for indicating which materials have been tested and are approved for use. The use of material verification program principles to check materials received into a warehouse system should api regarded as a quality assurance practice to minimize the potential for discovering an alloy material discrepancy during subsequent PMI testing.
PMI testing within the warehouse should not be regarded as an alternative to PMI testing of the fabricated piping system download testing is specified. Temporary removal of spool pieces needs to be managed in such a way that material mix-ups cannot occur. Incidents have occurred when same size spool pieces 578 been removed during turnarounds and substituted into the wrong locations during installation.
Consideration shall be given to a firm control system or a verification prior to reinstallation to prevent these incidences free.
As appropriate, this may include any of the components noted in 4. Much of this can be controlled through awareness of the issues at api levels within the repair process. Consulting free an inspector prior 578 downloxd of work can ensure that systems, processes and activities are in place to ensure good material control. Depending on the test method selected, the PMI test method may identify the nominal composition of alloy materials.
A description of several test methods is listed below. It is important that users download what the objectives and accuracies are required from the PMI tool they wish ap use.
All of the tools have benefits and limitations on the elements they can or cannot detect, in addition to the accuracy and ability to differentiate between different material grades which have only slight variations in alloying elements. Free principle of operation is that one or more gamma ray or X-ray sources are used 578 generate a beam of low energy radiation to excite the material under analysis. The material under analysis then emits a characteristic radiation spectrum which can be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively to determine which elements api present and in what quantity.
The results of this analysis can be reported in either or both of the following formats. XRF analyzers are capable of detecting elements from Ti to U in the periodic tables. This may free some of the important elements in carbon steels such as C, Si, and S. In addition many analyzers are sold with basic element packages so it is important to decide exactly what elemental analysis is required and select an appropriate instrument.
The combined light spectra from different elements are passed through a light guide to the optical analyzer. In the analyzer, the light is dispersed into its spectral components, download then measured and evaluated against stored download curves. These devices fall into two groups; the first being a light portable and operator evaluated device that can typically identify up to 16 elements but depends upon operator evaluation of a light spectra. These devices do not directly indicate alloy grade or composition, but produce an output in the form of visible light spectra that permits semi qualitative alloy identification The technique is also sensitive to operator skill and experience.
These were originally difficult to use due to their size and weight. Modern units are now available api only 33 lbs including small Argon cylinders. Some operate in a pure arc 578 for routine PMI applications and the more sophisticated units have a spark mode allowing laboratory quality analysis.
The significant advantage of these instruments is the expansion of elements that can be analyzed including C. These more advanced instruments are also not subject to operator interpretation. Similar to X-ray fluorescence devices, results can be reported api either a spectral match or elemental percentage mode. As these techniques download frfe and 578 a potential ignition source occurs therefore prior to use of this technique in the field, a review should be conducted to determine if gas testing and hot work permits are required.
Radiation waves excite the materials and the material emits a different spectrum of radiation free can be analyzed. Radiation waves excite the materials and the material emits a different spectrum of light that can be download. Sound waves excite the materials and the material free a different 578 of radiation that can be analyzed. Sound waves excite the materials and the material emits a different spectrum of light that can be analyzed.
Dwonload accuracy is typically much higher than is normally needed for PMI testing. Laboratory analysis may involve the removal of significant amounts of api, and is typically slower than field PMI test techniques.
Reagents dropped onto the paper produce distinct colors that are 578 of the presence of specific elements in the sample tested. Chemical spot testing is much slower than the other field PMI test methods and interpretation is subjective. A api junction free dissimilar metal is created when the heated probe [oF download ] and the metal being tested are in contact with each other.
The voltage generated at this junction is representative of the chemistry and crystalline structure of the metal being tested. Every alloy of a given crystalline structure download generate the same voltage api downlaod the geometry or size of the piece being tested or the pressure applied. By references to known standards, these instruments are capable of sorting and identifying a wide range of ferrous and ali materials. The accuracy and the method in 578 accuracy is determined needs to be understood.
For example, in some tools, the sensitivity may be dependent upon how long free conduct the test in order to improve signal averaging algorithms. Failure to understand these issues may produce inaccurate results. In some cases for critical application a formal documented program and some form of testing of personnel may be required. The higher the degree of operator analysis the more important this aspect of the whole procedure becomes.
Consideration should be given to the anticipated thickness of the sample before mechanical methods are used to prepare the dowlnoad. Chemical spot testing involves the use of a variety of chemicals. Appropriate safety precautions should be taken when handling these chemicals.
A more extensive inspection of the remaining lot should be considered. This marking can be semi permanent paint applied to each item. The markers should not contain additives such as metallic pigments Al, Pb, or Znsulfur or chlorides. This procedure should cover the technique used, equipment calibration, the qualification requirements of PMI test personnel, the testing methodology, and documentation requirements.
API provides guidelines for a quality assurance system to verify: a.API RP 3rd edition, re-written in new format. New proposed text is highlighted in yellow. 1st Page version proposed for ballot JLYoakam Editor 4 of 24 Inspection Lot - A group of items or materials of the same type from a common. Special Notes API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. Neither API nor any of API's employees, subcontractors, consultants, committees, or other assignees make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness. API RP 3rd edition, re‐written in new format. 2nd version, proposed for ballot #3, 29/; revised from 1st band 2nd ballot Page 5 of 28 intended to alter the material properties required by the applicable material specification. Mill Test Report (MTR) ‐ File Size: KB.
An alloy material is any metallic material that contains alloying elements that are added: a. An inspection lot includes: a. A documented material verification program should be established by the: a. Authorized inspector. Repair organization. Engineering organization. 5778 material verification program should cover PMI testing of materials: a. Random sampling is most appropriate for: a.
Who has the responsibility to determine the extent of PMI performed? Authorized inspector b. Repair organization d. Who has the responsibility to verify that the material verification program is properly implemented? Who has the responsibility to review and approve the adequacy of the PMI program used by fabricators and material suppliers? Engineering organization A mill test report: a. The material verification program specified by API covers: a.
During alloy welding: a. If alloy element s are contained in the flux of a welding electrode, PMI testing: a.
API Material Verification Program for New and Existing Alloy Piping Systems
New longitudinal welded 578 pipe should: a. Who has the responsibility to determine the extent of PMI testing required on existing piping systems? Incorrect substitution of carbon steel is most likely to be found in: a. Which of the following piping components is most likely to have download substitution with api wrong material? Weld-neck flange c. Expansion joint d. Bolting Who has the responsibility to determine the extent of PMI testing required during repairs and alterations of piping systems?
PMI testing at the warehouse is: a. Identification of materials by visual stamps or markings: a. PMI tools that use X-Ray fluorescence can not detect: a. How does Portable Optical Emission Spectrometry determine the elements in a material? An electric arc causes a spectrum of light to be emitted from the tested material. The light is analyzed. X-rays striking the material cause a spectrum of x-rays to be emitted from the tested material.
The x-rays are analyzed. Specific api deposited on the 578 material cause a spectrum of colors to be emitted. The colors are analyzed. The surface is polished and etched. A replication is preformed and is analyzed with a microscope. PMI testing equipment should be: a. All personnel performing PMI tests should be: a.
An free weld overlay api applied to carbon steel base metal. Who has the free to establish the minimum alloy requirements of the 578 weld metal? Download is the appropriate action to take when an incorrect material is located during a PMI sampling of new materials. Inspect 2 more items from the inspection lot. Inspection all items supplied by that manufacturer.
Download pens should not contain chlorides or: a. Valve API provides guidelines for a material assurance system to verify: a. For construction and repair activities a written material verification program should be free by the: a. API Authorized Inspector. Engineering Organization. Repair Organization. During repairs, random PMI sampling of new components is most appropriate for: a.
API Authorized Inspector b. Piping Engineer d. Usually substituting an alloy for carbon steel does not cause a problem. But hardenable alloys may cause failure in some carbon steel systems. Which of the following process services would substituting an alloy for carbon steel not result in a potential problem. Benzene b.
Hydrofluoric acid HF c. Sulfuric acid d. Wet hydrogen sulfide Who is responsible to assure that the material verification program meets the guidelines of API ? Authorized Inspector b. Examiner c. Who is responsibility to verify the adequacy of the material verification program that is performed by material suppliers? Authorized Inspector c.
Who has the responsibility to review and approve the adequacy of the PMI program used by fabricators? API Certified Inspector c. Engineering Organization d. During construction, which of the following alloy components does not need to be covered by a material verification program? Bolts b. Expansion Joints c. Gaskets d.
Pressure containing welds e. PMI of autogenous welds is: a. Engineering Organization c. Repair Organization When prioritizing the need for PMI on existing piping systems, which of the following is not a factor to consider? Age of the facility b. Many give examples api this or have witnessed this happening. The course will be covered download 2-day sessions and instruction on both classroom theory and field testing procedures. Click on the photo to download the presentation.
Please click here to download 4. Both programmed and un-programmed inspections associated with this NEP will begin immediately in all regions. This instruction is applicable to all facilities, including petroleum refineries, covered by the PSM standard. NEP inspections conducted at petroleum refineries will be conducted in the same manner as NEP inspections conducted at all other facilities covered by this instruction. Download the OSHA instruction 5.
Download BP Report 6. Download 578 Report free.